The water edge is occupied by reed grass (Phalaroides
arundinacea) and sedges (mainly Carex acuta and Naumburgia
Aggregations of reed and creeping spike-rush (Eleocharis
palustris) with aquatic plants deve- lop in the water near the shore.
Further into the lake submerged water plant communites
emerge: Potamogeton perfoliatum and Batrachium peltatum.
Sandy littoral is a habitat of densely growing common reed
and the community of reed and mixed aquatic grasses (Equisetum fluviatile,
Polygonum amphibium). Further in the water they are replaced by communities
dominated by Potamogeton perfoliatum and mixed aquatic grasses. In the
Valaam archipelago littoral zone bulrush (Scirpus lacustris) appears in
reed communities. Submerged plants are represented by perfoliate pondweed
In the mud littoral the communities of common reed, sedges
(Carex vesicaria), cattail (Typha latifolia) are replaced by
floating-leaf water plant communities: Potamogeton natans, Nuphar lutea.
In deeper areas aggregations of submerged plants develop: Myrriophyllum
spicatum, Elodea canadensis, Potamogeton perfoliatum. The communities are
distributed in a mosaic pattern.
Landwards from the water edge meadows and mires develop on
sandy and mud soils. Communities with Carex nigra and Calamagrostis
neglecta are found closer to the water. Dryer soils get overgrown with
Nardus stricta and Festuca rubra. Low-lying peatlands are occupied
by sedge fens (with Carex acuta and C. lasiocarpa) and shrub
stands with some willow species (Alnus incana etc., Ramenskaya,1958).
Isolated pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) also occur in these habitats. In
some places farmland borders on the water.