Baltic Fund for Nature


Lake Ladoga belongs to the group of lakes little overgrown by vegetation. Low temperature, low amounts of biogenic elements and rare fluctuations of the water level hinder the development of plants. At the same time despite the low level of lake's overgrowth, total area covered with vegetation exceedes 130 sq. km. The considerable area of the lake results in high floristic diversity and diversity of plant communities in the shore strip.

The lake was found to have 107 macrophyte species comprising 71 association. The dominant communities are those of reed, bulrush and perfoliate pondweed (Raspopov, Rychkova, 1997; Raspopov et al., 1998)

Easily overgrown by vegetation is the sandy and clayey littoral. The diversity of plant communities in the rocky littoral is not high. Rocky littoral is free of higher vegetation. The highest diversity of species and communities is observed in the sheltered mud littoral zone found in the tops of bays and skerries of Ladoga (Raspopov, 1961).

Which plants
Ladoga shores

The main plant contributing to overgrowing of the shore is the common reed (Phragmites australis). It occurs in 72% of the shore communities (Raspopov, 1985). Floristically, the richest aggregation is that of reed and aquatic plants: it comprises over 80 species. Abundant are Equisetum fluviatile, Potamogeton perfoliatum, Potamogeton gramineus, Polygonum amphibium.

With regard to the lakeside vegetation the Lake Ladoga shore can be divided into three geobotanical regions (Fig.

  • skerries region (skerries),

  • open shore region (open coasts) with the western and eastern subregions,

  • southern (southern geobotanical district).

The skerries region is located in the north of the lake from Priozersk to Ristiniemi promontory. It holds communities with Nymphaea tetragona, Sparganium minimum, Carex aquatilis, etc. The communities are quite diverse, but their total area is not large (about 1500 ha).

The open shore region can be subdivided into eastern and western subregions. Eastern subregion occupies the eastern shore from Ristiniemi promontory to Gabanov promontory. This subregion is characterised by a variety of litoral types and coastal vegetation communities.

Among plant communities of eastern subregion the rare association with Littorella uniflora as well as the only location of Scirpus lacustris (the north-western part of the Andrusovskaya bay) are found Furthermore, in plant communities associated with the Baltic coast and shores of large lakes that stretch along the sandy beaches of the eastern shore to the north of the Svir river mouth a willow species (Salix acutifolia) which had often been used to stabilize bank sands is also included. Therefore, many flora researchers doubt its natural provenance on the Ladoga shores (Reviews..., 1992).

Western subregion occupies the western shore (Karelian isthmus shore) and it is little overgrown. Aquatic vegetation concentrates chiefly in the Taipalov bay near Burnaya river estuary and by the river Avloga estuary.

The southern region covers the Lake Ladoga shore from Morjin Nos promontory to Gabanov promontory (Annex A-3.6). The region is noted for a wide littoral zone. The 5-m isobath is sometimes up to 9 km away from the water edge. The shoreline vegetation is exceptionally well-developed (it occupies about 8200 ha). However, the southern region plant communities are subjected for the most intensive anthropogenic pressure (agriculture, construction and recreation).

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About project
  • Background
  • Purpose and Objectives
  • Project Personnel

  • Legislative basis
  • Legislation
  • Lake Ladoga drainage area as a management object

  • Environment
  • Geomorphology and landscapes
  • Climate
  • Waters, sediments and biota
  • Water - Land Border Zone
  • Terrestrial Ecosystems

  • Natural resources
  • Mineral
  • Agricultural
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  • Protected areas
  • Leningrad region
  • Republic of Karelia

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  • Agriculture
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  • Economical significance of natural resources and resource use

  • Ecological assessment
  • Sources of human impact
  • Assessment of the state of ecosystem components
  • Hot spots

  • Biodiversity conservation
  • Development scenarios
  • Proposed strategies

  • Literature

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