Water protection zones and protective belts of Lake Ladoga and watercourses in its small watershed
Water protection zone (WZ) as defined in the "Guidelines on water protection zones of water objects and their protective belts" is the territory adjoining the water areas of surface water objects. A special regime of economic and other activities is established in the zone in order to prevent pollution, littering, silting and degradation of the water object, as well as to conserve animal and plant habitats.
Protective belts (PB) with additional restrictions on nature use are established within the water protection zones.
For the Leningrad region projects of establishing WZ and PB of Lake Ladoga and water objects in its drainage area were developed by "Lengiprovodkhoz" institute, and approved by resolutions and decrees of the Leningrad region administration.
In Republic of Karelia (then Karelian ASSR) Karelian ASSR Council of Ministers passed a Decree dated 04.08.87 No. 256 "On establishment of water protection zones and special regime of using natural resources of Lakes Ladoga and Onego".
The water protection zone according to this document should be no less than 2 km wide.
In 1998 Government of Republic of Karelia issued a Decree dated May 16 No. 321 "On measures for the implementation of Resolution ¹256 on water protection zones and their protective belts in Republic of Karelia".
The width of WZ for Lake Ladoga in the Leningrad region was made 3 km to cover the territory of the lake small watershed area (to the water divide front), PB width - 100-500 m (depending on the natural characteristics of the shoreline).
The width of the water protection zone both for Lake Ladoga and watercourses emptying into it depends on natural factors, such as mechanical composition of soils, near-shore land slope, forest cover, as well as economic uses of the areas near the shore, and is specially calculated for the plans. Hence, its width will differ for different section of the same watercourse.
In accord with the decrees and resolutions of the Leningrad region administration listed above the water protection zone of watercourses in the Lake Ladoga drainage area ranges from 100 to 200 m, the protective belt - from 15 to 55 m. The exceptions are large rivers: Volkhov, Vuoksa, Svir, Syass, for which the width of the water protection zone is 700 m, of the protective belt - 100 m. The width of the water protection zone stated in the plan for the river Ojat' is 500 m, of the protecti- ve belt - 100 m.
A plan of specific nature protection measures was adopted for the water protection zone of Lake Ladoga within the Leningrad region, which was however implemented to a very minor extent.
The interim guidelines on water protection zones and special regime of natural resource use in the Lake Ladoga drainage area and other water objects in the Leningrad region (Resolution of the Leningrad region Executive Committee dated August 31 1987 No. 383) is so far the only normative document in force setting ecological requirements for economic and other activities in the small watershed of Lakes Ladoga and Onega as well as rivers Volkhov, Vuoksa, Ojat', Pasha, Svir and Syass.
The Guidelines stipulate that construction of new and expansion of existing industrial and agricultural enterprises in the water protection zone of the lake and watercourses emptying into it is allowed in exceptional cases, only through the resolution of RF Government. Absolutely prohibited is the construction of silage trenches, new animal farms, blasting, application of fertilizers in the snow-covered period.
Prohibited in the protective belt are all economic activities, except for construction of drinking and industrial water intake facilities, quays, water regulation facilities and other waterworks.